Language : English

LRNR provides this material totally free




1. Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France?

Ans- i. Autocratic Ruler- Louis XVI was an autocratic ruler who could not compromise with his luxurious life when he ascended the throne the royal treasury was empty.

ii. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France added to this was the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles.

Iii. Under Louis XVI France helped the thirteen colonies to gain their independence from Britain, the war added more than a billion lives to a dept credit, and now began to charge 10 % interest on loans. So the French government was obliged to spend an increasing percentage of its budget on interest payments only.

iv. Increase the tax - The state finally increased taxes to meet its regular expenses such as the cost of maintaining an army, running of government offices and for their own luxurious life.

v. Division of the society -

The french society was divided into three estates that is (i) clergy, (ii) Nobel and peasants, but the only members of the first two estates that is the clergy and the nobles were exempted to pay taxes. They belonged to the privileged class. Thus the all members of the third estate had to pay taxes to the state and in fact the burden of financing activities of the state through taxes was borne by the third estate only.

2. Which group of French society benefited from the revolution? Which group were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?

Ans- During the eighteen century in French society the society was divided into three estates and it was the 3rd estate of common people who mainly benefitted from the revolution as they gained equal socio-economic right and status. Whereas, the clergy and nobility were forced to surrender powers. Their privileges were taken away with the revolution the 3rd estate people get the same rights as the 1st and 2nd estates because inequality was one of the root causes of the revolution, the revolution tried to bring equality to society.

3. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Ans- The most important legacy of the french revolution was the ideas of democracy, equal rights and liberty. The idea of freedom from bondage was reworked by colonial peoples. During the nineteenth century, it was France from which the ideas of democratic rights and liberty with equality and fraternity was spread rest of Europe and the rest of the world.

India’s struggle for independence was also inspired by the ideas of the great French philosophers like Voltaire and Rousseau.

Tipu Sultan and Raja Ram Mohan Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to the ideas influenced by revolutionary France.

4. Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.

Ans- The list of democratic rights that we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution are.

i. Right to equality before the law.

ii. Right to freedom of speech or Right to debate and expression including the right to practice any profession or occupation.

iii. Right against exploitation

iv. Right to life

v. Right to vote

5. Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.

Ans- Yes, the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions.

The contradiction that follows in the messages of universal rights as per the French constitution of 1791 was women being completely ignored. Women were struggling for equal political rights. but all the rights that time were given to men.

The huge number of passive citizens, without voting rights, was like not putting into practice what you preach.

It could also to be said that the declaration of universal rights was a good beginning but it left much to be desired.

6. How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?

Ans- The rise of Napoleon was after the fall of the Jacobin government the wealthier class came in power. A new constitution was introduced. According to the new constitution, these members of society did not own property were not given the right to vote. It provided for two elected legislative councils. These elected legislative councils appointed a Directory which consisted of five members. This was done to safeguard against the possibility of ant one man dominating the power. Members of the directory often fought among themselves for leading the political instability. This led to creating a vacuum in France. There Napoleon Bonaparte took advantage of the situation and the reign of power as a military director.


No reviews yet, be the first one to review the product.